Understanding Firm Fixed Price Contracts: Benefits and Risks for Government Suppliers

Firm fixed price (FFP) contracts are a common type of agreement used in government contracting. Under an FFP contract, the supplier agrees to deliver a specific product or service at a predetermined price, regardless of the actual costs incurred during the project. This article explores the benefits and risks of FFP contracts for government suppliers, and highlights relevant resources from Public Contracting Institute to help navigate these agreements.

Benefits of firm fixed price contracts

  1. Predictability: FFP contracts provide a clear understanding of the project scope and the total cost upfront, allowing for better budgeting and planning.

  2. Incentive for efficiency: Since the supplier's profit is determined by their ability to control costs, there is a strong incentive to work efficiently and minimize expenses.

  3. Reduced administrative burden: With a fixed price, there is less need for detailed cost tracking and reporting, simplifying the administrative process.

Risks of firm fixed price contracts

  1. Underestimating costs: If the supplier fails to accurately estimate the costs involved, they may end up losing money on the project.

  2. Scope changes: If the government requests changes to the project scope, the supplier may need to renegotiate the price or absorb additional costs.

  3. Unforeseen circumstances: Unexpected events, such as supply chain disruptions or market fluctuations, can impact the supplier's ability to deliver at the agreed-upon price.

Public Contracting Institute offers a range of resources to help government suppliers understand and manage FFP contracts effectively. Here are some key areas to explore:

Contract administration

Effective contract administration is crucial for success with FFP contracts. Public Contracting Institute's Contract Administration Event Category offers valuable insights and best practices for managing these agreements, including:

  • Monitoring project progress and costs
  • Communicating with the government customer
  • Handling change orders and scope modifications

Compliance and ethics

FFP contracts are subject to various compliance and ethical requirements. Public Contracting Institute provides guidance on navigating these issues through resources such as:

Some specific products to consider include:

Intellectual property and data rights

FFP contracts often involve the use or creation of intellectual property (IP) and data. Understanding how to protect and manage these assets is critical for government suppliers. Public Contracting Institute offers a wealth of information on this topic, including:

Specific products to explore include:


As government suppliers increasingly rely on digital systems and data, cybersecurity has become a critical concern in FFP contracts. Public Contracting Institute addresses this issue through resources such as:

A specific product to consider is Cybersecurity for Lawyers, which provides essential knowledge for legal professionals working with government contracts.

Cybersecurity for Lawyers


Firm fixed price contracts offer both benefits and risks for government suppliers. By understanding these factors and leveraging the resources available through Public Contracting Institute, suppliers can effectively navigate FFP agreements and position themselves for success in the government contracting arena.

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